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3. Complaint Filing Procedure.

3.1. Information Required. A Complainant must provide certain information to VeraSafe in order to successfully file a Complaint with the Procedure. Therefore the Complaint must:

  1. allege a Participant’s failure to comply with the Framework(s);
  2. name a Participant that is in good standing in the Program(s) and that has listed VeraSafe as its independent dispute resolution mechanism on its EU-U.S. Privacy Shield, Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield, U.S.-EU Safe Harbor, or U.S.-Swiss Safe Harbor self-certification(s) with the U.S. Department of Commerce, as a defendant in the Complaint;
  3. include the desired outcome(s) that are being sought;
  4. include the fullest possible account of facts and events giving rise to the Complaint;
  5. if any damages or harm is alleged, include specific details of the harm and/or damages;
  6. include valid contact information for the Complainant;
  7. include consent to share the Complaint with the Participant;
  8. include all available documentation to support the Complaint; and
  9. include a declaration, under penalty of perjury under the laws of the United States of America, that all information submitted to VeraSafe in the Procedure is true and correct.

3.2. The Complainant is not required to pay any remuneration to VeraSafe in order to file a complaint with the Procedure.

3.3. Medium for all Procedure Submissions.

  1. VeraSafe shall provide correspondence to the Parties electronically, either by email or fax.
  2. The Parties shall submit all information, correspondence, and other material required by, or intended for use in, the Procedure (“Procedure Submissions”) to VeraSafe electronically.
  3. Procedure Submissions shall be considered delivered to the recipient immediately upon their electronic transmission by the sender.

4. Permitted Outcomes.

4.1. The Parties agree that the possible outcomes that a Complainant may seek via the Procedure, and the maximum relief that VeraSafe shall assign in a Data Privacy Hearing (as such term is defined in Section 8) or Appellate Hearing during the Procedure are limited to the outcomes described below (the “Permitted Outcomes”). Permitted Outcomes are only those that may require:

  1. the effects of noncompliance with the Framework(s) to be reversed or corrected by the Participant;
  2. that future data processing by the Participant be in conformity with the Framework(s);
  3. that the Participant cease processing PII of the Complainant;
  4. the Participant to delete relevant PII that was processed contrary to the Framework(s);
  5. the temporary suspension and/or removal of Participant’s license to display VeraSafe Seal(s);
  6. the Participant to compensate the Complainant for actual, direct losses incurred as a result of Participant’s non-compliance with the Framework(s); or
  7. the Participant to comply with other injunctive orders.

5. Eligibility.

5.1. Eligible Complainant. For a Complainant to be eligible to file a Complaint with the Procedure, the Complainant must be:

  1. above twelve years of age at the moment the Complaint is filed with the Procedure; and
  2. the Data Subject of PII exported from the EEA or Switzerland by or to a Participant; or
  3. the parent or legal guardian of a Data Subject who is under eighteen years of age at the time that the Complaint is filed with VeraSafe and whose PII was exported from the EEA or Switzerland by or to a Participant.

5.2. For a Complaint to be eligible under the Procedure, the Complaint must include the required information described in Section 3.1 and must:

  1. not have been previously resolved or settled by court action, arbitration, or other form of dispute resolution;
  2. not seek relief or other outcomes beyond the Procedure’s Permitted Outcomes; and
  3. be filed with the Procedure for the first time, except for Complaints alleging a Participant’s failure to comply with a previous Settlement Agreement.

5.3. Prior Good Faith Attempt to Resolve Complaint. The Complainant must make a good faith effort to resolve his dispute directly with the Participant before filing the Complaint with VeraSafe. Complainants are further encouraged to read the Participant’s privacy notice(s) entirely before filing a Complaint with VeraSafe. If VeraSafe determines, in its sole discretion, no good faith effort to resolve the dispute has been made, VeraSafe shall ask the Complainant to try to resolve the Complaint directly with the Participant and shall advise the Complainant that he may re-file the Complaint with the Procedure, as outlined herein, if the attempt to resolve the Complaint with the Participant does not yield satisfactory results.

5.4. If VeraSafe, in its sole discretion, concludes that additional information is needed to sustain a Complaint, it shall promptly contact the Complainant and advise him of the need for further information. If VeraSafe does not receive the requested information within fifteen business days of its request, VeraSafe shall close the Complaint, record an outcome of “Ineligible,” and notify the Complainant of the outcome.

5.5. Ineligibility Determination. If, based on the information available to VeraSafe, the Complaint or Complainant is found to be ineligible (an “Ineligibility Determination”), VeraSafe shall close the Complaint, record an outcome of “Ineligible,” and notify the Complainant of the outcome.

  1. Complainant’s Right to Appeal the Ineligibility Determination. The Complainant has the right to appeal VeraSafe’s Ineligibility Determination within ten business days of receiving the Ineligibility Determination. If the Complainant can furnish Credible Evidence to VeraSafe that a material error was made in the Ineligibility Determination, VeraSafe shall duly re-examine the Complaint and make a final determination as to the eligibility of the Complaint and Complainant.

6. Complainant’s Noncompliance With the Procedure.

6.1. If the Complainant breaches any term(s) of the Procedure in a material way, VeraSafe has the right to close the Complaint, record an outcome of “Closed by Default,” and duly notify the Parties.

7. Consultative Mediation.

7.1. Participant’s Response To Complaint. Complaints that VeraSafe determines to be eligible shall be forwarded by VeraSafe to the Participant. The Participant must file its response to the Complaint (“Response to Complaint”) with VeraSafe within twenty business days of its receipt of the Complaint. The Participant’s Response to Complaint must either:

  1. defend the Participant’s actions as permitted under the Framework(s);
  2. dispute the validity of information presented in the Complaint and contain all available documentation to support the dispute; or
  3. admit fault and agree to remedy the alleged violation(s).

7.2. Participant’s Failure to Respond. If the Participant fails to file a timely Response to Complaint, the failure to comply with the Procedure will be duly noted in the next Annual Procedure Report (as such term is defined in Section 14 of the Procedure) and VeraSafe shall refer the matter to the appropriate government agency in accordance with Section 13 of the Procedure.

7.3. Upon VeraSafe’s receipt thereof, the Participant’s Response to Complaint will be forwarded to the Complainant.

  1. Mediation Teleconference. If the Complainant is not satisfied by the Participant’s Response to Complaint, the Complainant may file with VeraSafe, a request for a mediation session to be conducted via telephone (hereinafter, a “Mediation Teleconference”) within ten business days of receiving the Participant’s Response to Complaint. The Mediation Teleconference is an informal process for the Parties to re-examine the details of the Complaint and work towards a mutually agreeable resolution.
  2. If the Complainant is satisfied by the Participant’s Response to Complaint, the Complainant shall notify VeraSafe in writing that the Complaint is resolved.
  3. If VeraSafe receives notification from the Complainant that the Complainant is satisfied with the Participant’s Response to Complaint, or otherwise receives no request for a Mediation Teleconference from the Complainant within the timeframe specified in Section 6.3(a), VeraSafe shall close the complaint with an outcome of “Closed by Default” and duly notify the Parties.

7.4. Mediation Teleconference Procedure. VeraSafe will provide and appoint a mediator to lead the Mediation Teleconference. VeraSafe will make a reasonable effort to schedule the teleconference with due regard for the schedules of the Parties and will notify the Parties of the scheduled time and date not less than fifteen days prior to the date of the Mediation Teleconference.

  1. Possible Outcomes of the Mediation Teleconference. VeraSafe will provide and appoint a mediator to lead the Mediation Teleconference. VeraSafe will schedule the teleconference with due regard for the schedules of the Parties and will notify the Parties of the scheduled time and date no less than 15 days prior to the scheduled Mediation Teleconference. The Mediation Teleconference is an informal process to re-examine the Complaint and guide the Parties towards a mutually agreeable solution or settlement.
    1. Complainant’s Failure to Comply. If the Complainant fails to appear at the scheduled time of the Mediation Teleconference, it will be assumed that the Participant’s Response to Complaint has satisfied the Complainant and the Complaint will be closed with an outcome of “Closed by Default” and the Parties duly notified.
    2. Participant’s Failure to Comply. If the Participant fails to appear at the scheduled time of the Mediation Teleconference, such failure to comply with the Procedure will be duly noted in the next Annual Procedure Report and VeraSafe shall refer the matter to the appropriate regulatory agency in accordance with Section 13.
    3. Mutual Settlement Agreement. If the Parties reach an agreement during the Mediation Teleconference, VeraSafe will record the Settlement Agreement parameters and notify both Parties in writing of the terms of the Settlement Agreement as decided by the Parties, within five business days of the Mediation Teleconference or as soon as reasonably practicable thereafter.
    4. No Settlement Reached. If no Settlement Agreement is reached during the Mediation Teleconference, the Complainant may file with VeraSafe, a request for a Data Privacy Hearing within ten business days of the Mediation Teleconference.
    5. If no Settlement Agreement is reached during the Mediation Teleconference, and the Complainant does not request a Data Privacy Hearing within ten business days of the Mediation Teleconference, the Complaint will be closed with an outcome of “Closed by Default” and the Parties duly notified.

8. Data Privacy Hearing.

8.1.Overview. Upon the request of the Complainant made to VeraSafe in accordance with the requirements of the Procedure, an officer appointed by VeraSafe will review the Complaint and all Procedure Submissions in a fair and impartial way and determine if clear, convincing, and satisfactory evidence is present to support the alleged violation of the Framework(s) made in the Complaint (a “Data Privacy Hearing”).

8.2. Exchange of Brief and Rebuttal. The Complainant’s request for a Data Privacy Hearing should include its detailed brief of the Complaint. Upon receipt, VeraSafe will forward the brief to the Participant. The Participant shall provide a rebuttal to VeraSafe within ten business days of receiving the Complainant’s brief.

8.3. Data Privacy Hearing Officer.

  1. The Data Privacy Hearing officer shall hold a current Certified Information Privacy Professional or Certified Information Privacy Manager credential from the International Association of Privacy Professionals, hold a Juris Doctor degree from an American Bar Association accredited law school, or be currently licensed to practice law in a jurisdiction of the United States or an EEA member state.
  2. The Data Privacy Hearing officer shall be impartial and neutral in the application of the Procedure.

8.4. Data Privacy Hearing Administration and Procedure.

  1. Data Privacy Hearing Officer’s Request for Information.
    1. The Data Privacy Hearing officer may request additional information or seek clarification from either Party, or both Parties, regarding the Procedure Submissions.
    2. Late Filings and Extensions. If a Party submits required information after the specified time limits, the untimely information shall not be submitted to the Data Privacy Hearing officer unless VeraSafe grants an extension for good cause. In lieu of such untimely Procedure Submissions, the Data Privacy Hearing officer will proceed to use all other available Procedure Submissions in making its Hearing Decision.
  2. VeraSafe’s Investigative Analysis. During the Data Privacy Hearing, the VeraSafe Program Administrator will independently and impartially investigate the Procedure Submissions and furnish to the Data Privacy Hearing officer its analysis of the validity of each essential fact presented in the Procedure Submissions. Such VeraSafe investigative analysis shall then be included in the Data Privacy Hearing as a Procedure Submission.
  3. Hearing Decision and Burden of Proof. The Hearing Officer shall examine the Procedure Submissions to decide if the available evidence does clearly, convincingly, and satisfactorily substantiate the allegation made in the Complaint and, if so, whether or not the alleged action or inaction of the Participant does violate the Framework(s) (the “Hearing Decision”).
    1. Substantiated Complaints. If in due examination of the Procedure Submissions, and in due consideration of the totality of the circumstances, the Data Privacy Hearing officer determines that the available evidence does clearly, convincingly, and satisfactorily substantiate the allegation made in the Complaint, and that the action or inaction of the Participant does violate the Framework(s), the Data Privacy Hearing officer shall require the Participant to comply with one or more Permitted Outcomes, as appropriate under the circumstances (a “Reparation Order”). The Parties will be duly notified of the Reparation Order.
    2. No Action Taken. If, in due examination of the Procedure Submissions, and in due consideration of the totality of the circumstances, the Data Privacy Hearing officer determines that the available evidence does not clearly, convincingly, and satisfactorily substantiate the allegation made in the Complaint, or that the alleged action or inaction of the Participant does not violate the applicable Framework(s), the Complaint shall be closed with an outcome of “Closed – No Action Taken” and the Parties duly notified.

9. Right to Appeal.

9.1. Eligibility and Acceptance of Appeals.

  1. Within ten business days of receiving notification that the Complaint has been closed with an outcome of “Closed – No Action Taken” the Complainant may submit an appeal to VeraSafe, if the Complainant believes that VeraSafe failed to adhere to the Procedure and such failure significantly affected the Hearing Decision.
  2. To be considered, the appeal must include a detailed briefing of the alleged procedural error(s). VeraSafe will accept appeals when the Complainant’s briefing presents Credible Evidence of a procedural error(s).

9.2. Brief and Rebuttal. Upon receipt of the appeal brief, VeraSafe will forward the appeal brief to the Participant. The Participant must provide a rebuttal to VeraSafe within ten business days of receiving the Complainant’s appeal brief.

9.3. Appellate Hearing Officer. VeraSafe will appoint an officer to administer the Appellate Hearing using the eligibility criteria described in Section 8.3(a). The Appellate Hearing officer will not be the same individual as the Data Privacy Hearing officer that administered Section 8 of the Procedure.

9.4. Appellate Hearing Administration and Procedure.

  1. Appellate Hearing Decision.
  2. Examination of Evidence. In its examination of the Procedure Submissions, the Appellate Hearing officer will use the Hearing procedure as described in Section 8.4(c).
    1. Substantiated Complaints. If, in due examination of the Procedure Submissions, and in due consideration of the totality of the circumstances, the Appellate Hearing officer determines that the available evidence does clearly, convincingly and satisfactorily substantiate the allegation made in the Complaint, and that the action or inaction of the Participant does violate the Framework(s), the Appellate Hearing officer will issue a Reparation Order requiring the Participant to comply with one or more Permitted Outcomes, as appropriate under the circumstances. The Parties will be duly notified of the Reparation Order.
    2. No Action Taken. If, in due examination of the Procedure Submissions, and in due consideration of the totality of the circumstances, the Appellate Hearing officer determines that the available evidence does not clearly, convincingly and satisfactorily substantiate the allegation made in the Complaint, or that the alleged action or inaction of the Participant does not violate the applicable Framework(s), the Complaint will be closed with an outcome of “Closed – No Action Taken” and the Parties duly notified.

10. Complainant’s Right To Withdraw.

10.1. A Complainant has the right to withdraw its Complaint at any time during the Procedure by submitting to VeraSafe a request to withdraw the Complaint.

  1. The Complaint will then be closed with an outcome of “Closed – Withdrawn” and the Parties duly notified.

11. Language.

11.1. VeraSafe shall conduct the Procedure in English but insofar as the Complainant is only able to read or write in a language other than English, VeraSafe shall make commercially reasonable efforts to provide translation services to the Complainant as necessary during the Procedure.

12. Participant’s Performance Under a Settlement Agreement or Reparation Order.

12.1. The VeraSafe Program Administrator shall monitor the Participant’s compliance with Settlement Agreements and Reparation Orders issued under the Procedure.

  1. (a) When the VeraSafe Program Administrator is satisfied with the Participant’s performance of an applicable Settlement Agreement or Reparation Order issued under the Procedure, the Complaint will then be closed with an outcome of “Closed by Settlement,” or “Closed by Performance of Reparation Order” and the Parties duly notified.

12.2. Participant’s Non Compliance. If Participant fails to comply with a Settlement or Reparation Order issued under the Procedure, the failure to comply with the Procedure shall be duly noted in the next Annual Procedure Report and VeraSafe shall refer the matter to the relevant government agency pursuant to Section 13.

13. Referral to Government Agencies.

13.1. VeraSafe in its discretion, may refer matters to U.S. government regulatory agencies of competent jurisdiction, if:

  1. the Participant refuses to comply with the Procedure in regards to a Complaint that has been filed with VeraSafe, as described in the Procedure; or
  2. VeraSafe determines that the Participant has failed to comply with a Settlement or Reparation Order issued under the Procedure within a reasonable time.

13.2. Before referring any matter to a regulatory agency of competent jurisdiction, VeraSafe shall first notify the Participant of the intended referral and give the Participant a reasonable opportunity of at least ten business days to cure any breach of the Framework(s) or any failure to perform its obligations under the Procedure.

13.3. Reports of referrals to government agencies shall be included in VeraSafe’s Annual Procedure Report.

13.4. Complaints that VeraSafe refers to a regulatory agency under this Section shall be closed with an outcome of “Closed by Referral to Regulatory Agency,” and the Parties duly notified.

14. Public Reporting.

14.1. VeraSafe shall publish an annual report on the operation of the Procedure (each, an “Annual Procedure Report”). The Annual Procedure Reports shall:

  1. include the types of Complaint outcomes arising under the Procedure;
  2. include a statistical summary of the nature of Complaints filed with the Procedure during the reporting period;
  3. include the number of Complaints filed with the Procedure during the reporting period;
    1. include a statistical summary of the number and nature of Settlement Agreements and Reparation Orders issued under the Procedure during the reporting period;
    2. include a statistical summary of the number and nature of Complaints deemed ineligible during the reporting period pursuant to Section 5, including the specific reason(s) for each Ineligibility Determination;
    3. for each Complaint which VeraSafe refers to a regulatory agency pursuant to Section 13, include a summary (including the Participant’s name) of the nature and outcome of the Complaint;
  4. include the minimum, maximum, and average time for Complaints to be closed under the Procedure during the reporting period; and

14.2. The Annual Procedure Report’s statistical summaries shall be comprised solely of aggregate, anonymous data.

15. Confidentiality.

15.1. Other than the Hearing Decisions and except as noted in Sections 13 and 14, all Procedure Submissions, deliberations, meetings, proceedings, and writings of the Procedure shall be treated as confidential by VeraSafe.

15.2. Each Party must treat any information provided to them by VeraSafe as confidential, and must not make such information available to anyone other than those persons directly involved in the handling of the Complaint, except as allowed or required by applicable law or by the Framework(s).

16. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY.

16.1. EXCEPT IN THE CASE OF DELIBERATE WRONGDOING, AND EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT THAT SUCH A LIMITATION OF LIABILITY IS PROHIBITED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR BY THE FRAMEWORK(S), AND WITH THE KNOWLEDGE THAT VERASAFE IS PROVIDING THE PROCEDURE FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE PARTIES INVOLVED, THE PARTIES ACKNOWLEDGE AND AGREE THAT THE FOLLOWING ARE NOT LIABLE FOR ANY ACT OR OMISSION IN CONNECTION WITH THE PROCEDURE: VERASAFE NOR ANY VERASAFE EMPLOYEE, BOARD MEMBER, COMPANY OFFICER, OR INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR UTILIZED BY VERASAFE IN THE PROCEDURE.

16.2. VeraSafe can offer no guarantee that the outcome of the Procedure will be an outcome with which either Party, or the Parties, is satisfied.

17. Interpretation.

17.1. This Procedure shall be interpreted under the laws of the United States of America.

18. Waiver of Subpoena.

18.1. Each Party agrees that it will not subpoena any of the following in any legal proceeding arising out of the Procedure or any Complaint: VeraSafe nor any VeraSafe employee, board member, company officer, or independent contractor utilized by VeraSafe in the Procedure.

19. Hold Harmless.

19.1. The Participant agrees to hold VeraSafe, its officers, agents and employees harmless from any liability, loss, or damage the Participant may suffer as a result of Complaints, claims, demands, costs, Settlement Agreements, Reparation Orders, or judgments against them arising out of the Procedure.

19.2. The Complainant agrees to hold VeraSafe, its officers, agents and employees harmless from any liability, loss, or damage the Complainant may suffer arising out of the Procedure or the acts or omissions of the Participant that gave rise to the Complaint.

20. Relationship of the Parties.

20.1. Nothing contained in the Procedure shall be construed to create the relationship of principal and agent, partnership, or joint venture, or any other commercial relationship between VeraSafe and either Party.

20.2. The Parties have no authority to act as agent for, or on behalf of, VeraSafe, or to represent VeraSafe, or bind VeraSafe in any manner.

21. Contact Information.

21.3. VeraSafe is subject to the investigatory and enforcement powers of the U.S. Federal Trade Commission. The Commission may be contacted using the information found on the website https://www.ftc.gov/contact.

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2.2. Capitalized terms not defined herein, have a definition ascribed to them in the Applicable VeraSafe Program Certification Criteria.

3. No Guarantee.

3.1. VeraSafe can offer no guarantee that the outcome of the Procedure will be an outcome with which either Party, or the Parties, is satisfied. By utilizing the Procedure, the Parties agree that VeraSafe shall have no liability for the outcome of the Procedure.

4. Permitted Outcomes.

4.1. The Parties agree that the possible outcomes that a Complainant may seek via the Procedure, and the maximum relief that VeraSafe shall assign in a Procedure Hearing during the Procedure are limited to the Permitted Outcomes. Permitted Outcomes are only those that may require:

  1. the effects of noncompliance with the Applicable VeraSafe Program Certification Criteria to be reversed or corrected by the Participant;
  2. that future data processing by the Participant be in conformity with the Applicable VeraSafe Program Certification Criteria;
  3. that the Participant cease processing PII of the Complainant;
  4. the Participant to delete Complainant’s PII that was processed contrary to the Applicable VeraSafe Program Certification Criteria;
  5. the temporary suspension and/or removal of Participant’s license to display VeraSafe Seal(s); and/or
  6. the Participant to comply with other injunctive orders.

5. Complaint Filing Procedure.

5.1. Information Required. Complainant is required to provide certain information to VeraSafe in order to successfully file a Complaint with the Procedure. Therefore the Complaint must:

  1. allege Participant’s failure to comply with the Applicable VeraSafe Program Certification Criteria of a VeraSafe Program in which Participant is in good standing;
  2. include the desired outcome
  3. that are being sought;
  4. include the fullest possible account of facts and events giving rise to the Complaint;
  5. if any damages and/or harm is alleged, include specific details of the harm and/or damages;
  6. include valid contact information for the Complainant;
  7. include authorization to share Complaint with Participant;
  8. include all available documentation to support Complaint; and
  9. include a declaration, under penalty of perjury under the laws of the United States of America, that all information submitted to VeraSafe in the Procedure is true and correct.

5.2. Medium for all Procedure Submissions.

  1. VeraSafe will provide correspondence to the Parties electronically, either by email or fax.
  2. The Parties shall submit all Procedure Submissions to VeraSafe electronically.
  3. Correspondence and Procedure Submissions shall be considered delivered to the recipient immediately upon their electronic transmission by the sender.

6. Eligibility.

6.1. Eligible Complainant. For a Complainant to be eligible to file a Complaint with the Procedure, the Complainant must be above 12 years of age at the moment the Complaint is filed with the Procedure.

6.2. For a Complaint to be eligible, the Complaint must:

  1. name a Participant that is in good standing in an Applicable VeraSafe Program as a defendant in the Complaint;
  2. not seek relief or other outcomes beyond the Procedure’s Permitted Outcomes;
  3. be filed with the Procedure for the first time, except for Complaints alleging a Participant’s failure to comply with a previous Settlement Agreement; and
  4. must not have been previously resolved or settled by court action, arbitration or other form of dispute resolution.

6.3. Prior Good Faith Attempt to Resolve Complaint. Complainant must make a good faith effort to resolve the dispute directly with the Participant before filing the Complaint with VeraSafe. Complainants are further encouraged to read the Participant’s privacy policy entirely before filing a Complaint with VeraSafe. If VeraSafe determines, in its sole capacity, no good faith effort attempt to resolve the dispute has been made, VeraSafe will ask the Complainant to try to resolve the Complaint and will advise the Complainant that he or she can re-file the Complaint as outlined herein if the attempt to resolve the Complaint with the Participant does not yield satisfactory results.

6.4. Eligibility Determination. If VeraSafe, in its sole determination, concludes that additional information is needed to sustain the Complaint it shall promptly contact the Complainant and advise him or her of the need for further information. If VeraSafe does not receive the requested information within 15 business days of its request, it shall advise the Complainant that it cannot proceed. If then, the Complaint or Complainant is found to be ineligible, VeraSafe will close the Complaint and notify the Complainant of the outcome.

  1. Complainant’s Right to Appeal the Eligibility Determination. Complainant has the right to appeal VeraSafe’s Eligibility Determination within ten business days of receiving the Eligibility Determination. If the Complainant can furnish Credible Evidence to VeraSafe that a material error was made in the Eligibility Determination, VeraSafe will duly re-examine the Complaint and make a final Eligibility Determination.

7. Consultative Mediation.

7.1. Participant’s Response To Complaint. Complaints that are found to be eligible will be forwarded to the Participant. Participant must file its response to the Complaint (“Response to Complaint”) within 20 business days. The Participant’s Response to Complaint shall either:

  1. defend Participant’s actions as permissible under the Applicable VeraSafe Program Certification Criteria;
  2. dispute the validity of information presented in the Complaint and contain all available documentation to support the dispute; or
  3. admit fault and agree to remedy the alleged breach of the Applicable VeraSafe Program Certification Criteria.

7.2. Upon receipt, the Participant’s Response to Complaint will be forwarded to the Complainant.

7.3. Participant’s Failure to Respond. If the Participant fails to file a timely Response to Complaint, the failure to comply with the Procedure will be duly noted in the next Procedure Report and VeraSafe shall refer the matter to the appropriate government agency pursuant to Section 11.

7.4. Mediation Teleconference. If Complainant is not satisfied with the Participant’s Response to Complaint, the Complainant may file with VeraSafe, a request for Mediation Teleconference within ten business days of receiving the Participant’s Response to Complaint.

  1. Mediation Teleconference Procedure. VeraSafe will provide and appoint a mediator to lead the Mediation Teleconference. VeraSafe will schedule the teleconference with due regard for the schedules of the Parties and will notify the Parties of the scheduled time and date no less than 15 days prior to the scheduled Mediation Teleconference. The Mediation Teleconference is an informal process to re-examine the Complaint and guide the Parties towards a mutually agreeable solution or settlement.

7.5. Possible Outcomes of Mediation Teleconference.

  1. Complainant Failure to Comply: Closed by Default. If the Complainant fails to appear at the scheduled time of the Mediation Teleconference or comply with the Mediation Teleconference Procedure (as described in Section 7.4.(a)), it will be assumed that the Participant’s Response to Complaint has satisfied the Complainant and the Complaint will be Closed by Default and the Parties duly notified.
  2. Participant’s Failure to Comply: Referral to FTC and Closed by Referral. If Participant fails to appear at the scheduled time of the Mediation Teleconference or comply with the Mediation Teleconference Procedure, the failure to comply with the Procedure will be duly noted in the next Procedure Report and VeraSafe shall refer the matter to the appropriate government agency pursuant to Section 11.
  3. Mutual Settlement Agreement: Closed by Settlement. If the Parties reach an agreement during the Mediation Teleconference, VeraSafe will record the Settlement Agreement parameters and notify both parties in writing of the terms of the Settlement Agreement as decided by the Parties, within five business days of the Mediation Teleconference or as soon as practicable thereafter. The Complaint will then be Closed By Settlement.
  4. No Settlement Reached. Complainant may file with VeraSafe, a request for a Procedure Hearing within ten business days of the Mediation Teleconference.I. If no Settlement Agreement is reached during the Mediation Teleconference, and Complainant does not request a Procedure Hearing within ten business days of the Mediation Teleconference, it will be assumed that the Participant’s Response to Complaint has satisfied the Complainant and the Complaint will be Closed by Default.

8. Procedure Hearing.

8.1. Overview. In a Procedure Hearing an officer of the VeraSafe Procedure Hearing Panel will review the Complaint and all Procedure Submissions in a fair and impartial way and determine if clear, convincing, and satisfactory evidence is present to support the Section 5.1allegation made in the Complaint.

8.2. Exchange of Brief and Rebuttal. The Complainant’s request for a Procedure Hearing should include its detailed brief of the Complaint. Upon receipt, VeraSafe will forward the brief to the Participant. The Participant shall provide a rebuttal to VeraSafe within ten business days of receiving the Complainant’s brief.

8.3. Late Filings and Extensions. If a Party submits required information after the specified time limits, the untimely information shall not be submitted to the Panelist unless VeraSafe grants an extension for good cause. In lieu of such untimely Procedure Submissions, the Hearing Officer will proceed to use all other available Procedure Submissions in making its Hearing Decision.

8.4. Procedure Hearing Officer.

  1. The Hearing Officer shall be impartial and neutral in the application of the Procedure.

8.5. Procedure Hearing Administration and Procedure.

  1. Hearing Officer’s Request for Information.
    1. The Hearing Officer may request additional information or seek clarification from either Party regarding the Procedure Submissions.
    2. VeraSafe Investigative Analysis. The VeraSafe Program Administrator will independently and impartially investigate the Procedure Submissions and furnish to the Hearing Officer its analysis of the validity of each essential fact presented in the Procedure Submissions. The VeraSafe Investigative Analysis shall then be included in the Data Privacy Hearing as a Procedure Submission.
  2. Hearing Decision and Burden of Proof.
    1. Substantiated Complaints. If in due examination of the Procedure Submissions, and in due consideration of the totality of the circumstances, the Hearing Officer determines that the available evidence does clearly, convincingly and satisfactorily substantiate the Section 5.1allegation made in the Complaint, the Hearing Officer will issue a Reparation Order requiring the Participant to comply with one or more Permitted Outcomes, as appropriate to the circumstances. The Parties will be notified of the Reparation Order.
    2. No Action Taken. If in due examination of the Procedure Submissions, and in due consideration of the totality of the circumstances, the Hearing Officer determines that the available evidence does not clearly, convincingly and satisfactorily substantiate the Section 5.1allegation made in the Complaint, the Complaint will be closed as “Closed – No Action Taken” and the Parties duly notified.

9. Participant’s Performance of Reparation Order or Settlement.

9.1. Notice of Reparation Orders and Settlement Agreements will be forwarded to the VeraSafe Program Administrator who will monitor the Participant’s compliance therewith

9.2. Participant’s Non Compliance. If Participant fails to comply with a Settlement Agreement or Reparation Order issued under the Procedure, the failure to comply with the Procedure will be duly noted in the next Procedure Report and VeraSafe shall refer the matter to the appropriate government agency pursuant to Section 11.

10. Complaint Closure.

10.1. When a Complaint is closed, the Parties will be notified electronically.

10.2. VeraSafe will close the Complaint when:

  1. VeraSafe determines that the Complaint or Complainant is not eligible pursuant to Section 6;
  2. ) VeraSafe determines additional information is needed to substantiate the Complaint and that information is not timely received by VeraSafe pursuant to Section 2.4(b);
  3. the Complainant withdraws the Complaint;
  4. the Parties have reached a Settlement Agreement and VeraSafe has Credible Evidence that Participant has complied with the Settlement Agreement within a reasonable time;
  5. the Hearing Officer or Panelist of the Procedure has issued a Hearing Decision and if a Reparation Order has been issued, VeraSafe has Credible Evidence that the Participant has complied with the Reparation Order within a reasonable time;
  6. VeraSafe has referred the matter to a government agency pursuant to Section 11; or
  7. the Complainant breaches any term(s) of the Procedure in a material way.

11. Referral to Government Agencies.

11.1. VeraSafe, in its discretion, may refer matters to appropriate government agencies if:

  1. the Participant refuses to comply with the Procedure in regards to a Complaint that has been filed with VeraSafe; or
  2. VeraSafe determines that the Participant has failed to comply with a Settlement Agreement or Reparation Order issued under the Procedure within a reasonable time.

11.2. Before referring any matter to the appropriate government agency, VeraSafe must first notify Participant of the intended referral and give Participant a reasonable opportunity of at least ten business days to cure any breach of the Participant’s Master Service Agreement or failure to perform under the Procedure.

11.3. Reports of referrals to government agencies shall be included in VeraSafe’s Annual Procedure Report.

12. Public Reporting.

12.1. VeraSafe shall publish Annual Procedure Reports annually when there is relevant data to report. Annual Procedure Reports will not be published when no Complaints have been filed with the Procedure. These Annual Procedure Reports shall:

  1. provide a statistical summary of the number and nature of Complaints filed with the Procedure;
  2. provide a statistical summary of the number and nature of Settlement Agreements and Reparation Orders issued under the Procedure;
  3. provide a statistical summary of the number and nature of Complaints deemed ineligible during the period pursuant to Section 6, including the specific reason(s) for determinations of ineligibility;
  4. for each Complaint which VeraSafe refers to a government agency pursuant to Section 11, provide a summary (including the Participant’s name) of the nature and outcome of the Complaint; and

12.2. The statistical summaries shall be comprised solely of aggregated anonymous data.

13. Confidential Information.

13.1. Other than the Hearing Decisions and except as noted in Sections 11 and 12, all Procedure Submissions, deliberations, meetings, proceedings and writings of the Procedure shall be treated as confidential by VeraSafe.

13.2. The Parties agree that during the Procedure they will treat any information provided to them by VeraSafe as confidential, and that they will not share such information with anyone other than those persons directly involved in the handling of the Complaint.

14. Complainant’s Right To Withdraw.

14.1. Complainant has the right to withdraw its complaint at any time during the Procedure by submitting to VeraSafe a request to withdraw the Complaint.

  1. The complaint will then be closed as “Closed – Withdrawn” and the Parties will be notified electronically.

15. Limitation of VeraSafe’s Liability.

15.1. Except in the case of deliberate wrongdoing, and except to the extent that such a limitation of liability is prohibited by applicable law, and with the knowledge that VeraSafe is providing any Procedure access for the benefit of the other Parties involved and not for the benefit of VeraSafe, the Parties acknowledge and agree that the following are not liable for any act or omission in connection with the Procedure: Advanced Partnerships LLC; VeraSafe or VeraSafe staff; Board members; committee members; independent contractors utilized by VeraSafe; or Officers.

16. Interpretation.

16.1. VeraSafe and any Mediator or Hearing Officer appointed under the Procedure, shall interpret and apply the Procedure insofar as they relate to their powers and duties.

17. Waiver of Subpoena.

17.1. By participating in the Procedure, the Parties agree that they will not subpoena any of the following in any legal proceeding arising out of the matters at issue in the Procedure or Complaint: Advanced Partnerships LLC; VeraSafe or VeraSafe staff; Board members; committee members; independent contractors; Officers; or any records of the Procedure.

18. Language.

18.1. VeraSafe conducts the Procedure in English but will provide translation services as necessary during the Procedure.

19. Hold Harmless.

19.1. The Participant agrees to hold Advanced Partnerships LLC, VeraSafe, its officers, agents and employees harmless from any liability, loss or damage the Participant may suffer as a result of Complaints, claims, demands, costs, Reparation Orders or judgments against them arising out of the Procedure.

19.2. The Complainant agrees to hold Advanced Partnerships LLC, VeraSafe, its officers, agents and employees harmless from any liability, loss or damage the Complainant may suffer arising out of the Procedure or the acts or omissions of the Participant that gave rise to the Complaint.

20. Relationship of the Parties, No Commercial Relationship Between VeraSafe and Complainant.

20.1. Nothing contained in the Procedure shall be construed to create the relationship of principal and agent, partnership or joint venture, or any other commercial relationship between VeraSafe and either Party.

20.2. No Authority. The Parties have no authority to act as agent for, or on behalf of, VeraSafe, or to represent VeraSafe, or bind VeraSafe in any manner.

21. Contact VeraSafe.

Joomla Web Security

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In the modern world of Software Development, there are plenty of people who spend their time being innovative and creative, looking to provide software that meets the demands of an ever-growing user base of customers. Unfortunately, on the other side, there are also those who wish to gain access to your website, your data, and more importantly, your customer data by any means possible. This means you need to be aware of what you have to do to stop this from happening.

JoomlaJoomla, like any open source application, has a large user base of Developers and Testers around the world. This active network spends a lot of time developing the Joomla CMS. They are also responsible for fixing bugs and releasing new features to keep up with the demand for functionality from the millions of people who use Joomla to run their websites.

There are currently three main versions of Joomla in use. The oldest version is 1.5, the more popular version, 2.5, and most recently version 3.0 which offers a lot more richness in functionality than the previous versions of the CMS.

Things to Consider

As support is dropped for the older versions of Joomla, the knock-on effect is that bugs are no longer fixed which does raise the issue of holes and gaps being exploited. This threat doesn’t just come from ethical developers who simply want to raise awareness, but also from those who are keen to break into websites to steal data or deface them in some way. In all such cases, they will gain access to your admin area and have the ability to lock you out of your own website by changing all your access passwords and so on.

Depending on the type of website you have, the risk of exposing not just your data, but that of your customers too, is of paramount importance especially if your country has laws in place to protect data. In the UK for example, there is the Data Protection Act and action does get taken against organisations which fail to protect their customers’ interests online.

The primary threat to websites in general (not just limited to Joomla, as badly developed bespoke applications can also be affected) is Cross Site Scripting (XSS).

The ability to conduct XSS attacks relies upon the use of code to exploit weaknesses and open gaps in the core software. They will also target the plugins and components that are built into the site from third party developers.

The Knock-on Effects of the Joomla Update

It is natural for plugin developers to also drop support for their component versions on a version of Joomla that is no longer maintained, and sometimes this provides the perfect scenario for the site to be exploited and the back end exposed through a sustained attack through many different methods of XSS.
Nothing prepares you more for the onset of an attack than having software that is kept up to date. If you’re running an older version of Joomla, WordPress or any other type of open source application, then look for opportunities to upgrade to the latest version.

Unfortunately, this may mean spending both time and money on your website, but it’s time and money well spent especially when your website has to comply with international laws, alongside the duty you have to your customers. You also need to ensure your plugins and components are kept up to date, as new versions of Joomla inevitably mean that plugin updates will be close behind.

Download our XSS overview (link to PDF) or click on any of the links below for some more information on XSS.

Blog: Canadian Government Web Security Problems

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One of the reasons given about why the government should worry about open source software is security.  I’m rather tired of this argument, so after hearing it one too many times, I decided to take some action. 

The concern is that if a piece of software is open for everyone, including hackers, it will be more vulnerable. This has been shot down any number of times, with some of the best known arguments stemming from the idea that many eyeballs will give you better confidence in the security of your software. Others security experts that have argued that good open source software is as secure as proprietary software and will likely have fewer bugs

However, most arguments are looking at security on an application level rather than a system level. When looking at websites, you have to look at all of the elements which a hacker can gain access to, not just a single application. 

It is well known that every software project will eventually have security issues that need to be addressed through patches or newer releases of the code.  If there isn’t a techie with authority, time and knowledge to apply those security patches in a reasonable time-frame, then you won’t have a secure site for long.

If there aren’t good practices for managing backups, removing old or unnecessary files, striping out files and minimizing the information which is guessable on your website, then there will be security risks.  A determined hacker can learn a lot about an organization by analyzing stray pieces of ASP code from an old backup. 

Custom built applications or proprietary tools built with a small user base are also huge security risks, because in most instances there aren’t the security professionals available to continue to monitor a piece of software.  Security standards and threads are changing all of the time, as are the languages which web applications are written in. 

As I discussed in a previous blog post, there are over 7 million dynamic pages (.php, .asp, jsp, etc.) within the gc.ca domain.  Each of those 7 million pages may have one or more security issues.  Using a unified CMS like Drupal would significantly reduce the security risks for the Government of Canada because it would significantly cut down the number of access points.

Because there is a security community built around Drupal (and the other open source software that it works with), the software out of the box is more secure than most government websites (based on a small sample).  Given the lack of internal auditing for security practices within the government, migrating sites over to Drupal is going to be the most cost effective way of addressing both the security issues posed to government data as well as to the users of the government websites. 

The Canadian Government does have some policies on this front, the Operational Security Standard: Management of Information Technology Security (MITS), is a start.  However, clearly there’s a gap between policy & practice.

So I picked some sites, largely through Netcraft’s list of gc.ca servers and then targeted them with a Grendel Scan of their security. I’m not going to list which sites I selected for obvious reasons, but I have notified all of them and provided details of the potential security issues. I am not all that hopeful that I will get any responses from my emails. 

I had reports of:

  • Outdated software was detected
  • Various FrontPage files that could be used to gain information about the server or attack it
  • IIS files shows http links on and off site which might show host trust relationships and other machines on network.
  • TRACE option enabled which could allow XSS or credential theft.
  • A Frontpage counter CGI & imagemap.exe can be a source of security vulnerabilities
  • FCKeditor file upload scripts which could be edited by remote attacker
  • Many backup files located for a wide range of file types

Other Reports & Descriptions from Grendel Scan

I decided to include the full description (hiding some of the site specific data) that was provided by the scan of government sites.  Mostly, this is because it provides readers with a sense of what is at stake but also what acronyms like CSRF mean and why things like IP address leakages & proxies might be a concern. 

Private IP address leakage

Private IP addresses defined by RFC 1918 are not rout-able on the Internet, but are frequently used on Internet-exposed devices and then changed by Network Address Translation (NAT).

Knowing the private IP address of a server can help an attacker to craft better attacks against internal assets.

Proxy server detected

The web server is also acting as a proxy server. A CONNECT command was issued for “grendel-scan.com:443”. The response code was 200, indicating a successful connection. Note that this test is not very sophisticated right now, and should be manually confirmed.

An attacker might be able to access web servers through the proxy server that would otherwise be blocked by a firewall. If the CONNECT method is supported, any TCP protocol can be tunneled.

HTTP debug method was enabled

The TRACE/TRACK method was enabled on the server

An attack known as Cross Site Tracing (XST) leverages this method to steal cookies. Once a session key in a cookie is obtained by an attacker, he can hijack a legitimate user session.

Similar session IDs detected

The cookie named sessionID appears to be used to track session state. A minimum of 128  bits of random data is generally recommended

If the session ID is generated in a predictable manner, an attacker could hijack legitimate sessions by guessing the session IDs of authenticated users.

Potential CSRF detected

One or more cross-site request forgery (CSRF) vulnerabilities may have been identified. CSRF allows an attacker to force a user to execute arbitrary commands against the vulnerable website. This is possible when the structure of the command is predictable. If the command can be requested as a GET, then a simple IMG tag on an attack website can force the browser to send the command. A POST request can be sent using some simple JavaScript. The browser will send any cookies or authentication credentials associated with the targeted attack, because it has no way of knowing that the request was not intentionally executed by the user.

A list of queries that appear to be vulnerable to CSRF is below. A specific form may be found on multiple pages, but was only tested once.

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)

When the attack string was supplied as the parameter value, it appears to have been placed in the results in a way that allows arbitrary JavaScript to be executed. A unique token was used for tracking purposes during testing.

Note that some test attacks use a fictional JavaScript function (testXSS) for testing. This is because some anti-XSS filters will block common JavaScript functions (e.g. “alert”) by name. This is not a sufficient security control; the fictional function allows the test to proceed more rapidly than testing multiple real functions. Other test attacks use a fictional hostname (notreal.fake) or a fictional IP address (123.321.1.1) for testing. To perform an actual XSS attack, replace it with the name of a host that you control.

Cross site scripting can (XSS) is a vulnerability that allows an attacker to insert arbitrary web content (HTML, JavaScript, etc) into an otherwise legitimate page. Because the URL is still on the targeted website, a user may consider it to be a trusted link. This can be leveraged to perform many attacks, such as:

  • Reformatting the page to appear as a login page, but with the credentials sent to the attacker
  • Sending the users session key to the attacker, allowing for session hijacking
  • Forcing the users browser to send attacks to other websites
  • Logging the users keystrokes 

Before using any data (stored or user-supplied) to generate web page content intended to be simple text, escape all HTML meta characters.

Possible SQL Injection

When a single quote (‘) was appended to the parameters listed below, a SQL error message was returned. This could indicate a SQL injection vulnerability.

SQL injection can allow an attacker to obtain the information stored in your database. Under some circumstances it can also allow for arbitrary command execution on the database server. 

Directory traversal vulnerability

A possible directory traversal vulnerability was detected in the “FN” parameter. The original value of the parameter was “contact.htm”. When the value of “.contact.htm” was used instead, it appears that a different page was returned, perhaps an error message. When a value of “./contact.htm” was used, it appears that the response matched the original request. This implies that the parameter is vulnerable to directory traversal attacks. However, this test may be prone to false positives, so further investigation is recommended.

Depending on the function of the page, directory traversal attacks might be used to read or execute arbitrary files already on the server.

Web Security for Dummies

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Regardless of whether you run a company, operate for a company or federal government, or want to know how requirements contribute to services which you use, you will discover it in this article.

The consequences of information reduction plus the needed safeguards are Component of the method. The system will give full attention to the principals of applying security in a corporation. As Section of this process Pupils will prepare and evaluate a variety of security guidelines.

The study course will even give full attention to the protocols like TCP/IP and HTTP which can be essential for e-commerce plus the Procedure in the community

From inside e-mails to product sales resources to fiscal statements, businesses of all measurements from all industries take care of massive quantities of information day after day. To a corporation like yours, this information is often a competitive edge – it’s how you solve issues, land massive purchasers, and grab your share of the market.

It supports the conversation of objectives and the development of staff competencies, and permits simple submission of ISMS improvements and improvements.

10. put together security documentation for approval by senior management and current outcomes of security audits.

9. develop and produce a corporate education plan to communicate equally orally As well as in crafting the security necessities for compliance with security insurance policies.

Running information security in essence means controlling and mitigating the varied threats and vulnerabilities to assets, while concurrently balancing the management work expended on probable threats and vulnerabilities by gauging the chance of them really occurring.

A packet filter is a first era firewall that procedures network targeted visitors with a packet-by-packet foundation. Its key career should be to filter traffic from the remote IP host, so a router is necessary to connect The interior network to the Internet.

This a person-year Graduate Certification software is designed to present pupils with a holistic method of information systems security mainly because it applies to enterprise.  The program will give a broad knowledge of security ideas and concentrate on business very best tactics for information security.

Though security is fundamentally based on people and procedures, There are a variety of specialized methods to take into account when developing, building and screening protected web purposes. In a higher amount, these answers contain:

Applicants implementing to the Online Variation of the program should assure they’ve got appropriate technological capacity to complete This system, such as use of a pc, essential program and internet access for every study course in the program. College students attending the Online version of the program won’t be necessary to click here fork out a Join lab fee.

This class will protect the methods for checking the community for unauthorized access. The strategy of Ethical hacking and the equipment and techniques accustomed to exam the security techniques now set up can be examined.

Its aim is to establish policies and steps to use towards attacks online.[1] The world wide web signifies an insecure channel for exchanging information which results in a high danger of intrusion or fraud, including phishing[2], on the internet viruses, trojans, worms and a lot more.

Web Security- A Prime Concern

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In this digital era, every entrepreneur wants to establish a strong online presence of their business. Various CMS (Content Management System) such as Drupal, Joomla enables you to create a quick and easy web presence. Though this makes your task easy and efficient there are some unwanted secondary effects which you may encounter. The big and prime one is website security.

Best Website Designing Company in India is concerned about the security of the website and gives high priority to this important factor. Here in this blog post, we will discuss some tips to secure your website.

Updates

If you have insecure or outdated software then your website may likely to go in scratch. So, you need to make sure that you should use all up-to-date software or CMS version and plug-in with the latest updation. Usually, updates are needed once a week or a month. In case you are running a site without firewall such as Cloud Proxy then you should update it as soon the new updates are released.

One Site, One Container

If a single server is hosting more sites then it is one of the worst security practices. This also creates a big surface for the attack. You need to be attentive and try to minimize the numbers of hosting many sites on a single server. Change the default CMS settings as it is very delicate from security viewpoint for the end user. As the attacks on sites are automatic and most of them are based on the default CMS setting. So, you need to change the default settings of content management system application at the time of installing content management system. Top Website Designing Company in Delhi follows this approach in order to maintain the site security. You can also change the default details on an afterward date.

Backups

There is a need to plan the best backup solution as in this online world, we face many troubles regarding security and various other factor related issues. Hacker can easily access to the publicly available unpatched version of content management system extension. So, planning the backup solution is necessary for the purpose of web security.

Hence, you need to be careful and try to avoid the mistakes that can impact your web security. These are just some tips to make you concerned about the need for the web security. Besides this, if you want to rank your website at the top of the Google then avail the effective SEO Service in Delhi.

Web Security for Dummies

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Lessons are sent on the internet and facial area-to-confront on campus.  Total-time and portion-time college students have the option to watch Stay and interactive webcasts or show up at courses facial area-to-facial area on campus for some classes.  All webcasts are going to be recorded and archived so pupils can overview content and learn at their particular tempo.

The implications of knowledge loss and the demanded safeguards are Element of the procedure. The program will pay attention to the principals of utilizing security in a corporation. As Component of this method Students will get ready and assess many security guidelines.

There are a selection of things you can do that will help protected your internet site. This article features an assortment of strategies, and also one-way links to other content delivering more practical information.

Design and style and carry out a coherent and in depth suite of information security controls and/or other varieties of hazard cure (like hazard avoidance or chance transfer) to handle People pitfalls which are considered unacceptable; and

The company has defined and carried out a management procedure by teaching personnel, building recognition, implementing the right security steps and executing a systematic method of information security management.

Information security management (ISM) describes controls that a company needs to implement to ensure that it can be sensibly guarding the confidentiality, availability, and integrity of property from threats and vulnerabilities. By extension, ISM includes information possibility management, a procedure which consists of the evaluation with the pitfalls a corporation should contend with in the management and safety of property, along with the dissemination on the risks to all proper stakeholders.

Digital catastrophe Restoration can be a form of DR that generally requires replication and will allow a consumer to are unsuccessful in excess of to virtualized …

Vulnerabilities: How prone information assets and associated controls are to exploitation by a number of threats

A packet filter is a primary technology firewall that processes network website traffic with a packet-by-packet basis. Its principal occupation will be to filter site visitors from a distant IP host, so a router is necessary to connect The inner network to the online world.

Buying a ready-built ISO/IEC 27001 know-how package deal helps make the implementation undertaking more quickly by supplying the company with a starting point for their management technique, which only calls for adjusting and expanding for the organisation’s requirements.

mHealth (cell overall health) is really a normal time period for the usage of cell phones along with other wi-fi technological know-how in clinical care.

Applicants applying to the Online Edition of This system should really assure they have got appropriate technological potential to complete This system, which include usage of a pc, essential software package and internet access for click here each program in This system. Students attending the net Model of This system will not be necessary to spend a CONNECT lab price.

Multi-component authentication (MFA) is actually a method of Laptop access Management wherein a person is granted access only following effectively presenting a number of different items of evidence to an authentication system – generally no less than two of the next types: information (a thing they know), possession (a thing they have got), and inherence (anything They can be).

By Barnaby Lewis To carry on furnishing us With all the services that we hope, enterprises will cope with progressively big quantities of details. The security of the information is A significant issue to buyers and corporations alike fuelled by a variety of large-profile cyberattacks.